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19 February 2010

Reentry Facts

Reentry Facts

  • Federal and state corrections facilities held over 1.6 million prisoners at the end of 2008 — one of every 198 U.S. residents.1
  • At least 95 percent of state prisoners will be released back to their communities at some point.2
  • More than 735,000 individuals were released from state and federal prisons in 2008, an increase of 20 percent from 2000.3
  • Approximately 9 million individuals are released from jail each year.4
  • More than 5 million individuals were on probation or parole at the end of 2008.5
  • In a study of 15 states, more than two-thirds of state prisoners released in 1994 were re-arrested and more than half returned to prison within three years of their release.6
  • In 2008, parole violators accounted for 34.2 percent of all prison admissions, 36.2 percent of state admissions, and 8.2 percent of federal admissions.7
  • A quarter of adults exiting parole in 2008 — 133,947 individuals — returned to prison as a result of violating their terms of supervision, and 9 percent of adults exiting parole returned to prison as a result of a new conviction.8

Mental Health

  • The incidence of serious mental illnesses is two to four times higher among prisoners than it is in the general population.9
  • In a study of more than 20,000 adults entering five local jails, researchers documented serious mental illnesses in 14.5 percent of the men and 31 percent of the women, which taken together, comprises 16.9 percent of those studied — rates in excess of three to six times those found in the general population.10

Substance Abuse

  • Three quarters of those returning from prison have a history of substance use disorders. Over 70 percent of prisoners with serious mental illnesses also have a substance use disorder.11
  • In 2004, 53 percent of state and 45 percent of federal prisoners met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria for drug abuse or dependence. Nearly a third of state and a quarter of federal prisoners committed their offense under the influence of drugs. Among state prisoners who were dependent on or abusing drugs, 53 percent had at least three prior sentences to probation or incarceration, compared to 32 percent of other inmates. At the time of their arrest, drug dependent or abusing state prisoners (48 percent) were also more likely than other inmates (37 percent) to have been on probation or parole supervision.12
  • In 2002, 68 percent of jail inmates met DSM criteria for drug abuse or dependence. Half of all convicted jail inmates were under the influence of drugs or alcohol at the time of offense. Inmates who met substance dependence/abuse criteria were twice as likely as other inmates to have three or more prior probation or incarceration sentences.13
  • Only 7 percent to 17 percent of prisoners who meet DSM criteria for alcohol/drug dependence or abuse receive treatment in jail or prison.14

Housing & Homelessness

  • More than 10 percent of those entering prisons and jails are homeless in the months before their incarceration. For those with mental illness, the rates are even higher — about 20 percent. Released prisoners with a history of shelter use were almost five times as likely to have a post-release shelter stay.15
  • According to a qualitative study by the Vera Institute of Justice, people released from prison and jail to parole who entered homeless shelters in New York City were seven times more likely to abscond during the first month after release than those who had some form of housing.16


  • The prevalence of chronic illnesses and communicable diseases is far greater among people in jails and prisons.17
  • In 1997, individuals released from prison or jail accounted for nearly one-quarter of all people living with HIV or AIDS, almost one-third of those diagnosed with hepatitis C, and more than one-third of those diagnosed with tuberculosis.18
  • At yearend 2008, 1.5% (20,231) of male inmates and 1.9% (1,913) of female inmates held in state or federal prisons were HIV positive or had confirmed AIDS. Confirmed AIDS cases accounted for nearly a quarter (23%) of all HIV/AIDS cases in state and federal prison. In 2007, the most recent year for which general population data are available, the overall rate of estimated confirmed AIDS among the state and federal prison population (0.43%) was 2.5 times the rate in the general population (0.17%).19

Education & Employment

  • Two in five prison and jail inmates lack a high school diploma or its equivalent.20
  • Employment rates and earnings histories of people in prisons and jails are often low before incarceration as a result of limited education experiences, low skill levels, and the prevalence of physical and mental health problems; incarceration only exacerbates these challenges.21
  • A large, three-state recidivism study found that less than half of released prisoners had secured a job upon their return to the community.22


  • An estimated 809,800 prisoners of the 1,518,535 held in the nation’s prisons at midyear 2007 were parents of children under age 18. Parents held in the nation’s prisons — 52 percent of state inmates and 63 percent of federal inmates — reported having an estimated 1,706,600 minor children, accounting for 2.3 percent of the U.S. resident population under age 18.23
  • Since 1991, the number of children with a mother in prison has more than doubled, up 131 percent. The number of children with a father in prison has grown by 77 percent.24
  • Twenty-two percent of the children of state inmates and 16 percent of the children of federal inmates were age 4 or younger. For both state (53 percent) and federal (50 percent) inmates, about half their children were age 9 or younger.25
  1. West, H.C., W. Sabol, & M. Cooper. Prisoners in 2008. NCJ 228417. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2009.
  2. Hughes, T. & D.J. Wilson. Reentry Trends in the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Assistance, 2002.
  3. West, Sabol, & Cooper.
  4. Beck, A.J. The Importance of Successful Reentry to Jail Population Growth. Presented at the Urban Institute's Jail Reentry Roundtable, June 27, 2006.
  5. Glaze, L.E. & T.P. Bonczar. Probation and Parole in the United States, 2008. NCJ 228230. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2009.
  6. Langan, P.A. & D.J. Levin. Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1994. NCJ 193427. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2002.
  7. West, Sabol, & Cooper.
  8. Glaze & Bonczar.
  9. Hammett, T., C. Roberts, & S. Kennedy. "Health-Related Issues in Prisoner Reentry." Crime & Delinquency 47, no. 3 (2001): 390-409.
  10. Steadman, H.J., F. Osher, P.C. Robbins, B. Case, & S. Samuels. "Prevalence of Serious Mental Illness Among Jail Inmates." Psychiatric Services 60 (2009): 761–65.
  11. Hammett, Roberts, & Kennedy.
  12. Mumola, C.J. & J.C. Karberg. Drug Use and Dependence, State and Federal Prisoners, 2004. NCJ 213530. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics,
  13. Karberg, J.C. & D.J. James. Substance Dependence, Abuse, and Treatment of Jail Inmates, 2002. NCJ 209588. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics,

Posted via email from the Un-Official Southwestern PA Re-Entry Coalition Blog

from the desk of C. S.: "Pittsburgh Saves" East End

are you Ready4Work?

PowerNet Dayton!

Hiring from Within:

Last year, employers filled more than half of job openings with existing employees, a new study to be released Friday shows.

Internal transfers and promotions accounted for an average of 51% of all full-time positions filled in 2009, down from 39% in 2008 and 34% in 2007, reports CareerXroads, a staffing-strategy consulting firm in Kendall Park, N.J. Survey respondents included 41 companies that employ a combined 1.8 million U.S. workers. Last year these firms collectively filled 176,420 positions.

For the 49% of jobs that were filled with external recruits, referrals accounted for the most hires -- 27% -- and about the same number as in 2008. On average, these yielded one hire for every 15 referrals received. Meanwhile, company Web sites and job boards accounted for 22% and 13% of external hires, respectively.

What the findings indicate, says Mark Mehler, co-founder of CareerXroads, is that networking is the most effective strategy for landing employment. "Job seekers should use job board and corporate sites to find information about openings, but they should use their network to apply," says Mark Mehler, co-founder of CareerXroads.

Survey respondents also said outside talent was found via job boards that specialize in advertising open positions in specific categories. For example,, a job board for the technology sector, netted 0.8% of external hires, as did, which lists only positions paying salaries of $100,000 or more. All other niche job sites that employers identified were collectively credited with bringing in 27% of external recruits.Among the job boards that respondents credited for netting outside talent, came out on top, accounting for 42%, however one respondent claimed a significant portion of these. netted 12% of external hires, while aggregate job sites, which advertise openings from multiple job boards, hooked 10%. Classifieds provider accounted for 2.8% of external hires.

Going forward, the survey found that 48% of respondents expect to increase hiring in 2010 compared with last year, while just 11% predicted they'd reduce hiring. The remainder said they expect to make no changes to their head counts.

Meanwhile, the Labor Department reported Thursday that there were 2.5 million job openings on the last business day of December 2009. The seasonally adjusted job openings rate increased just slightly to 1.9% from 1.8% the month prior.

Write to Sarah E. Needleman at

Posted via email from the Un-Official Southwestern PA Re-Entry Coalition Blog

where can i get this stuff?

from the desk of: Toni M.: Savvy Savers


This wonderful workshop is designed for Hill District Residents.  However, I believe anyone is welcome to attend. Please pass this information to your network.

 “Toni” M.-------

NeighborWorks® Western Pennsylvania Offers Savvy Savers Workshop at Hill House


In conjunction with Pittsburgh Saves week and the efforts of the Financial Education Consortium, a special Savvy Savers workshop will be held at the Hill House Association on Wednesday, February 24 from 6 pm to 8pm.

Participants will create weekly menus, prepare shopping lists and learn how clipping coupons can reduce spending at the grocery store.

To register, call 412-697-4676


In partnership with One Hill Neighborhood Coalition, Hill House Association and BNY  Mellon.

Posted via email from the Un-Official Southwestern PA Re-Entry Coalition Blog

from the desk of A. J. F.: Your Participation is Needed.

from the desk of A. J. F.: Your Participation is Needed.

17 February 2010

Nonprofit Newswire | Taxes and the End of Stimulus via RUTH MCCAMBRIDGE

February 10, 2010

 The Philadelphia Inquirer -We have been bringing you a lot of stories about proposals to eliminate nonprofit tax and fee exemptions lately but this is a slightly different tack. Pennsylvania’s Governor Ed Rendell is proposing an expanded sales tax to offset the anticipated loss of stimulus funding in 2011. Specifically he has proposed reducing the sales tax from six percent to four percent, but expanding the number of items that would be taxed. This, naturally, is likely to bring him direct opposition from scads of special interest groups. The changes he is proposing would bring $530 million in new revenue, which would partially offset an estimated loss of more than $2 billion in federal aid in 2011. How is this nonprofit news? Well, naturally state revenues will effect spending on services delivered by nonprofits but also as we covered in our Newswire the Pennsylvania budget last year got badly stalled on the topic of spending level and the budget was not passed until October 9th, a record setting 101 days late. In the meantime a number of state contracted nonprofits were functioning on mere fumes for months. Ultimately, it makes enormous sense for nonprofit networks to involve themselves in the framing of these conversations and in advocating for our communities. But nothing will make this an easy year for that involvement as gaping holes promise to open up in many state budgets.—Ruth McCambridge

NPQ's Newswire Roundup

Posted via email from the Un-Official Southwestern PA Re-Entry Coalition Blog

16 February 2010

Dress4Success Pittsburgh-link from N.H.

Dress for Success Pittsburgh 

Opens Career Center


PITTSBURGH, PA - 1.26.2010 - Dress for Success Pittsburgh has opened their new Career Center.  The Center is located downtown Pittsburgh in the Dress for Success Office - Warner Center, 332 Fifth Avenue, 5th Floor - and offers services and resources along every single step of the job search process.  This includes resume and cover letter-writing instruction, job search assistance, an Internet-accessible computer lab, and mock interview simulations. In addition, clients are provided with individualized attention from volunteer Career Consultants who possess backgrounds in a number of professional fields.  These include job development, career specialization, and human resources. 

The Career Center is made possible with support from Highmark and the Buhl Foundation. 

It is open Monday through Friday from 10:00 AM to 4:00 PM, and the services and resources offered are available to women free of charge, regardless of employment status.


Beginning February 3, DFS Pittsburgh will offer a series of workshops every Wednesday, 12:30 - 1:30 PM at the Career Center.  The monthly cycle focuses on one topic each week and covers "Basic Job Search Skills," "Resume and Cover Letter Writing," "Internet Basics and Online Job Searches," and "Mock Interviews and Tips". Each workshop includes an informational session followed by a "hands on" experience where women have the opportunity to practice what they have learned and receive one-on-one assistance.


Another benefit that Dress for Success Career Center provides is the opportunity for clients to receive tailored assistance in resume and cover letter-writing. Dress for Success Pittsburgh has over 200 professional women volunteers who can provide support.

Women may come to the Career Center Monday - Friday, 10:00 AM to 4:00 PM, to use the resources available to conduct their own, independent job search but they are encouraged to call first to set up an appointment. For more information, to schedule and appointment or to sign up for a workshop, contact Dress for Success Pittsburgh at 412.201.4204.   


About DFS Pittsburgh: The mission of Dress for Success Pittsburgh is to promote the economic independence of disadvantaged women by providing tools and a network of support that help women gain and retain meaningful employment.

Founded in 2005, Dress for Success Pittsburgh is an independent affiliate of an international nonprofit organization that has served over 500,000 women around the world.  Dress for Success Pittsburgh operates three cornerstone programs aimed at assisting women in crisis and/or time of critical life transition: Professional Clothing Assistance, Professional Women's Group and Career Center.  To learn more, go to


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Posted via email from jimuleda's posterous


February 16, 2010 (New York Times, NPR)


"The Census Bureau struck a blow for electoral fairness recently when it decided to speed up publication of its data on prison populations to ensure it is available for the next round of redistricting. We hope this new data, which will be released in the spring of 2011, will bolster the efforts of reformers who are trying to end prison-based gerrymandering — the cynical practice of drawing legislative districts with populations inflated by inmates who do not have the right to vote and whose actual residences are often far away," states a New York Times editorial.

NPR also highlights the "urban-versus-rural battle" that activists are calling unfair. Peter Wagner of the Prison Policy Initiative speaks to the issue of prisoners not being counted in the communities that they come from.



Posted via email from the Un-Official Southwestern PA Re-Entry Coalition Blog


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